Ohio University Bulletin. Published in July, 1895. Psychology in Education. By RURIC N. ROARK, Kentucky State College. 12mo, cloth, 312 pages, $1.00 Vicar of Wakefield. By Oliver Goldsmith (Eclectic English Classics). 12mo, boards, 207 pages 35 cents. (23 volumes of this series now ready.) Plane Geometry. (White's Series of Mathematics.) By JOHN Macnie, A. M. 12nio, cloth, 240 pages 75 cents. Outline Studies in United States History. By Francis H. White, A. M., Kansas State College. Small quarto, boards, flexible, 111 pages 30 cents. Report of the Committee of Fifteen. Published for the National Educational Association. 8vo, paper, 235 pages 30 cents net. Uniform with the Report of the Committee of Ten. Also 30 cents net. Contes et Legendes==Part Two, By H. A. Guerber, author of Myths of Greece and Rome, etc. 12mo, cloth, 192 pages 60 cents. Part One published in April. Burger's Lenore. Edited by A. W. SPANHOOFD. (Germania Texts.) To be published monthly. 18mo, paper, 32 pages 10 cents. Announcements of the first ten numbers on application. Der Lindenbaum And other stories. By Heinrigh SEIDEL. Edited by DR. ERNEST RICH- ARD, Hoboken Academy. 12mo, boards, 71 pages 25 cents. Three volumes out. Others in preparation. School Zoology. For High Schools and Academies. By MarGARETTA BuRNET, Woodward High School, Cincinnati. 12mo, cloth, 216 pages , Single copies of any of the above boohs will be sent by mail, postpaid, on receipt of the price. Special terms for introduction. Correspondence is cordially invited and will have prompt attention. American Book Company, Chkago.'^'*" 3'7 Walnut Street, Cincinnati, O. OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. The greatest march that has \ been published for years, and is played by all the leading bands of /^ the country, such as Bellstedt's, Gilmore's, Weber's, Brand's, ¥ Sousa's, Baldwin's Boston Cadet, Fort Thomas, U. S. Marine. I^ Don't fail to get a copy. ' If MflRCH your local dealer will not furnish \^ it to you, send direct to the pubhshers. Be sure to ask for^VALEROSA MARCH, by Edward Wittich. Price, 7i 50 Cents Published by THE GEO. B. JENNINGS CO. CINCINNATI. You will make no mistake in ordering this march. Nothing like it for a Two Step. It has been used at all the fashionable watering places this summer. ORCHESTRA, $1.00. MILITARY BAND, 50 CENTS. The University Library has for sale or exchange the following bound volumes: New Englander and Yale Review, vols, x and xii, 1887-8. Lippincott's Magazine, vols, xxxix and xliii. Education, vol. xii. The Arena, vol. v. Mermaid Series : Dekker, Otway, Webster and Tourneur, Nero and other Plays, Massinger, two vols., Ford and Heywood. ^A^atson's Kant and his English Critics. English History in Contemporary Writers : The Misrule of Henry iii; Edward iii and His Wars; Simon de Montfort ; The Crusade of Richard ; Strongbow's Conquest of Ireland. 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The price is Fifty Cents per Annum, or ten cents for single numbers. All remittances and communications should be ad- dressed, University Bulletin, Athens, Ohio. PAGE. Consciousness and Will in Their Rela- tion TO Culture and Character, . 3 Editorial Notes, 9 Personal Notes, 15 Book Notices 17 CONSCIOUSNESS AND WILL IN THEIR RELATION TO CULTURE AND CHARACTER. By C. S. COLER ('S3), M. S., Principal Sandusky Iligli School. "A cultivated man, wise to know and bold to perform, is the end for which nature works."' — Kmerson, Man's truest greatness lies within him- self. The soul, like the flower, is destined to growth and development. Like the flower, also, it gathers its beauty and fragrance from sources of which we are little aware. Both are sus- ceptible of culture. Culture in its truest sense differs from education, implying as it does greater development of the sensibilities and greater assimilation of knowledge. Time, leisure, manners, society, are all necessary to culture. The purpose of education is to make man useful. The purpose of culture is to make man beautiful. The prayer of Socrates was, "Grant, oh gracious gods, that I may be beautiful within ! " True culture regards the soul as the grandest of all created things. For the soul all things exist. For it stars hold their courses and systems re- volve in obedience to law. For it the uni- verse was created and the Son of Man came to earth to teach the ways of God. The dew-drop and the ocean, the atom and the world, science, art, history, philos- ophy, poetry, religion, all contribute to the great work of culture. Culture must, therefore, be regarded as the chief end of human life. The man of true culture is a man in all his faculties and powers. He has perception, memory, imagina- tion, reason, conscience, affection, will, — all these, fresh, vigorous, and active, go to make up a genial spirit of intellectual life which animates his every act. His character is not a passive thing for outward circumstances to shape and modify. Give such a man the most common material and out of it he will rear a sub- lime structure. Give him but ordinary advantages and he will, like Cromwell, or Luther, bring about a revolution, or organize an institu- tion that shall stand for ages. The problem of civilization has been to reach such a state of society as would serve for the highest good of the individ- ual and at the same time for the highest good of the community at large. Civilization at the present time is in many ways antagonistic to the highest development of the individual. Character is overlooked. Fashion and custom rule supreme. The individual is sacrificed for the good of society, — if good it may be called. Not by looking at what society wants, but by a deep and careful study of what our own nature wants are we developed to the highest degree. "Every brave heart," says Emerson, " must treat society as a child and not allow it to dictate." Accuracy and acuteness of perception, strength and readiness of memory, healthy and comprehensive imagination, ability to reason, breadth and activity of sensibility, OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. and power to will, — these are some of the things to be aimed at in every system of true culture. CONSCIOUSNESS. But while these faculties of mind and powers of soul are being strengthened and invigorated, the consciousness that pre- sides over them must also receive atten- tion. No education is complete without the proper development of consciousness. There is, of course, such a thing as "ab- normal " consciousness, and some writers go so far as to discourage the develop- ment of consciousness. They say : " The centipede was happy quite, Until the toad for fun, Said, ' Pray which foot comes after which? ' This worked her mind to such a pitch, She lay distracted in the ditch. Considering how to run." Another writer says : " Only instinctive action is swift, sure, and firm." We grant that the best action of both soul and body is unconscious action. But it comes to be unconscious action largely by practice and repetition. It may be truly said of consciousness — "A little learning is a dangerous thing." We need to " Drink deep of the Pierian spring." Consciousness is the power of the soul to know (1) its own existence, (2) its own relations, (3) its own acts and states. It is an infallible instinct of the soul itself, the action of which is superior to all its other fundamental exercises. It is the inner light, revealing the phenomena of the inner world just as perception re- veals the phenomena of the external world. Dr. Hopkins says: " Consciousness is the knowledge, by the mind, of itself as the permanent and individual subject of its own operations." He further says of consciousness that it is universal, that it is not a faculty, that it^ does not exist alone, that it is infallible, that it is not under the control of the will, and that its office is to bind all the opera- tions of mind into unity. It is the basis of modern philosophical study. " I think," says Descartes, "therefore I am." We thus see that the nature of con- sciousness is such as to make it an essen- tial factor in the development of all the fundamental operations of mind and soul. In all true culture the nature and im- portance of consciousness should be brought out clearly and distinctly, and its rightful authority should be recognized. Here it is that we meet with one of the greatest defects of our popular education. The power of spiritual nature is wanting. Knowledge stops short of its end. Experience touches only the surface. The depths of vitality of the soul are not reached. Men become shrewd, sharp, and com- petent, but it is all at the expense of the self-searching power, of deep-seated con- sciousness, of genuine culture. "The object of education," says Bishop Spalding, " is to make men good and reasonable, not to make them smart and eager for possession and indulgence." The man of true culture is more than a highly polished piece of apparatus. Facility and force can not satisfy his demands. Knowing the power of prejudice, the fallaciousness of reason and of conscience, he .carries a large, genial, purified heart into every pursuit of life. Such a man is not a thinking machine, but a thinking soul. He scorns any proposal whose object is simply to coin his ability and his powers into gold. His influence for good is felt wherever he moves. He has a manly self-reliance and heeds not siren voices that would turn him from his course. The music of his own soul outrivals the sweetest notes that Orpheus ever sung. He knows " What and how great the virtue and the art. To live on little with a cheerful heart." He feels " What nothing earthly gives nor can destroy. The soul's calm sunshine and the heart-felt joy." For the great work of culture we are everywhere surrounded with the amplest means. Emerson says : " Every object of na- ture serves for use, for beauty, for lan- guage, or for discipline." By intelligent labor the materials and forces of nature are made still more useful to man. OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. Wind and water serve him. The light- ning of the heavens is made obedient to his touch. The stars guide his course, and at every step of his progress he avails himself of a yet greater agency, a more hidden law, or a more subtle force, to aid him in executing his earthly sovereignity. (Only yesterday I saw an invention for collecting the rays of sunshine and con- verting them into electricity to be stored in batteries for use as heat, light and power.) Man changes the forest trees into a habitation of beauty. He polishes the rude stones and forms them into monu- ments to commemorate his deeds. He touches the canvass and makes it glow with the forms of passing sweetness. With his magical hand he produces sounds that rival the "music of the spheres." By his ever-contriving ingenuity he transforms the materials of nature and multiplies wonders more rapidly than commerce can diffuse them. " But man cannot live by bread alone." The growth of consciousness is worth more than the maturing of intellect for merely utilitarian ends. To be a man in the hush of the soul, in the light of one's own consciousness, — this is a consummation more desirable than the achievement of wealth or fame. Culture brings this possibility within reach of every one. In a degree it makes man master of his fate, and enables him, as the poet says, " To build a new life on a ruined life. To make the future fairer than the past, And make the past appear a troubled dream." For in the hour of thoughtful medita- tion, of earnest self-searching, man may experience a change within himself that is beyond his power of comprehension, and, like Bunyan of old, walk forth among his fellow men a more impressive wonder than the whole material world can show. " For man indeed, must know, There is but little here below. Except what in himself is found " Swedenborg was wont to say that every person creates his own heaven or hell. Milton expresses the same thought thus: " The soul is its own place. And contains a heaven in itself, Or in itself a hell." Spenser says : " So every spirit, as it is most pure. And hath in it the more of heavenly light, So it the fairer body doth procure To habit in, and it more fairly dight. With cheerful grace and amiable sight. For, of the soul the body form doth take, For soul is form, and doth the body make." And another : " Every soul builds for itself a house. And beyond its house a world. And beyond its world a heaven." WILL POWER. But consciousness of itself is not enough to effect the great work of culture. There must also be a resolute and un- yielding force of will calmly and patiently put forth. Hardship must be endured ; antago- nistic circumstances must be encountered ; the powers of mind must be directed ; the whole moral nature must be subdued and brought under control. Just as " there is no gold-mine country that is traversed by good roads," so in the work of culture the way is not always smooth. The person who would attain to true culture must fortify himself against dis- couragement and defeat. Obstacles must be encountered ; even sorrow and suffering must be experienced, for without these no discipline can be complete. The aim of true culture is to develop character in the truest and broadest sense of the word. Character when thus considered does not stop with the individual, but includes man in his relation to his fellow man and to the universe in which he lives. The most important factor of character is the Will. The greatest force in the world is man, and one of the most irresist- ible forces in man is his will. When the brow is knit, when the teeth are shut, when the hand is clenched, when the soul gathers its strength together and makes the final resolution to accomplish some noble deed, then it is that mountains sink into mole-hills and man becomes in- deed the vicegerent of God. The world stands as it is today because of a few such resolutions, made and car- ried out. Science and art would be mere fanciful dreams if the strong will did not execute their conceptions and designs. OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. It is thus that the dreams and specula- tions of one age become the realities of the next. It is due to the strong will that the new worlds have been discovered, that conti- nents have been spanned by wire and rail, and that we talk with persons across the sea almost as readily as with our neighbors across the street. In war the victory has almost invariably fallen to the leaders of strongest will. Caesar, Hannibal, Napoleon, Washing- ton, Grant, are examples of what deter- mination and perseverance can accom- plish. Politics is but little more than a war of wills. And thus we might go on from the greatest to the most trivial affairs of life, and everywhere we should see that suc- cess remains for the persons who can will. The strong will is of the greatest im- portance in forming character also. Bad habits must be broken up. Good resolutions must be carried out. In short, it is the strong will, kept well in hand, that gives self-control, self-respect, and dignity and strength of character. But the influence of the will does not stop here. It reaches down to conduct. It is able to exert a stronger influence over the body than any other powers of the soul. Many persons die because they do not will to live. What would Napoleon have cared for a scratch on the hand or the loss of a finger ? The strong will triumphs over difficulty and defeat. We recall how Demosthenes stammered and failed in his first efforts as an orator, but how he finally carried everything before him. Garrison was not able to command at- tention when he began his great work, but he said, " I zviUhe. heard !" and we know the result. When Disraeli, the Jew, first spoke in the English House of Commons, he was laughed at and howled into silence. He calmly said, " The time will come when you will hear me ! " And he made his word good. At the time of the throwing of a bomb in the French Chamber of Deputies (which occurred about two years ago), while the room was filled with smoke, and the groans of the wounded were heard above everything else, the President calm- ly arose and said, " Gentlemen, this ses- sion continues. It would not be to the dignity of France if such an affair as this should disturb our deliberations. We will hear from the next speaker ! " The will also has the controlling influ- ence over all the other powers of the soul. The intellect with its faculties of percep- tion, of representation, of elaboration ; the sensibilities, — emotions, appetites, af- fections and desires, — all these may be made subservient to the will. All writers on ethical and psychological subjects recognize the importance of will power in directing and controlling the perceptive and intellectual faculties. Attention is almost wholly dependent upon the will. We see for the most part what we will to see. We hear for the most part what we will to hear. We taste for the most part what we will to taste. In like manner also the representative powers of intellect, — fantasy, memory, imagination, are all subject to the will, both as to the object to which they are directed and the duration and intensity with which they act. This is true to a very limited e.xtent of fantasy, to a greater extent of memory, and to a much greater extent of imagina- tion. The elaborative faculty of mind is also subject to the will. Newton tells us that the great work he accomplished was due to self-denial, con- centration and long-continued effort. But all of these things depend upon will power. Edison frequently locks himself in a room in his laboratory and resolves not to eat or sleep till he has solved some diffi- cult problem. Boswell reports Dr. Johnson as saying that a man can write well at any time "if he will but set himself doggedly about it." Bishop Butler, Wordsworth, Carlyle, and Kant controlled their thoughts largely by controlling, what were to them, the circum- stances necessary to thinking. But it is in relation to sensibility that the will is of greatest importance in effect- ing culture. It is in the realm of sensibility also that consciousness and will power are brought most closely together. Whether the appetite for strong drink or for narcotics shall characterize or con- trol the individual depends upon his power of will. And so with all appetites. The desires, too, are subject to the will OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. both as to the object desired and the in- tensity with which they are exercised. We are warned against covetousness, in- ordinate ambition, vanity, selfishness; we are exhorted to be industrious, self- sacrificing, generous, and this, on the ground that these characteristics are largely a matter of choice with ourselves. The will has the controlling influence over the affections also. Love of kindred, love of country, love of humanity, gratitude, sympathy, pity, are all to be cultivated and made a part of our very being. On the other hand, anger, resentment, revenge, jealousy, ingratitude, selfishness, are to be put down and cast out so that the soul may know them no more. This, too, must be done by the will, if not directly, then indirectly, by placing the soul in such attitude to some other influ- ence that the desired result may follow. Praise for performing, or censure for not performing this important work of culture in relation to the affections goes to show that it is dependent upon the free will of the individual. The emotions, beauty, grandeur, sublim- ity, cheerfulness, happiness, joy, and even conscience, are largely under the control of the will, and hence enter into the great work of culture. In considering these various manifesta- tions of sensibility and their dependence upon the will, it should be borne in mind that although some of them may not of themselves be subject to the will to any great extent, it is within the power of the will very largely to control the circum- stances upon which they all depend. Although consciousness is not under the control of the will, as has been said, yet the conditions necessary for the exercise and development of consciousness are in a great measure subject to the will, and hence it is that in the work of culture con- sciousness and will are the most essential factors. CHARACTER. The result of culture is character. Gar- field used to say, that character is the, joint product of nature and nurture. We grant this to be true, but of the two ele- ments, nature and nurture, nurture is the more important. Happy may he be who is born well. But thrice happy is he who has subdued his own nature and built for himself a noble character. "There is no thing we cannot overcome ; Say not thy evil instinct is inherited. Or that some trait inborn Makes thy whole life forlorn And calls down punishment that is not merited." " Pry up thy faults with this great power, Will ! However deeply bedded in posterity, However firmly set, I tell thee firmer yet Is that vast power that comes from truth's immensity." H. W. IV. Indecision, vacillation, stupidity, indif- ference, are for the most part the result of a weak will, and may, if treated in due time and manner, be largely overcome. Self-reliance, honesty, truthfulness, energy, enthusiasm, pluck, perseverance, resignation, faith — all of these essential elements of character are dependent upon the will, as a little consideration will show. The word enthusiasm, for instance, _ originally meant, "possessed of, or by a god." Holmes says: "Faith in something and enthusiasm for something is what makes life worth living." We all know that enthusiasm is largely under the control of the will. Many per- sons fail in the enterprises of life for lack of enthusiasm, while others of much less ability succeed because of it. Mere bustle is not enthusiasm. The best kind of enthusiasm is that which acts quietly and shows itself by its results. Industry, too, is largely dependent upon the will. It is not natural for most peo- ple to like hard work. But by being trained to it from youth up, hard work may become a sort of second nature. Dr. Johnson used to say of himself that he was naturally lazy, and that whatever he had accomplished, he had done by force of will. Something like this is true of every one. Work means effort, and will power is necessary to effort. One of the noblest forms of will power is courage. Courage dares to do some- thing. It takes risks. It rises to emer- gencies. It consults neither priests nor prophets. It obeys neither fashion nor custom. It bows to the dictates of neither monarchs nor nobles. It stands alone, a law unto itself, and is its own reward. 8 OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. Reflection, or self-examination, is also dependent upon the will. Reflection is the field where judgment, consciousness, will, and conscience meet for conference. Some of the most successful men of whom history gives an account have made it a rule to sleep over every matter of importance. Reflection is the great pre- ventive of regret and remorse. It is the scholar's companion. Emer- son says : " The life of the scholar should be checkered by solitude. It is the safeguard of mediocrity. It is to genius the cold, obscure shelter where moult the wings which will bear it farther than suns and stars." CONCLUSION. We thus see that both culture and char- acter are developed, for the most part, from within. They have to do with the soul, with its relations, its acts, its states, its powers, its possibilities. But while culture holds all things subor- dinate to the soul, it needs the presence and the power of consciousness to give it life and depth. The culture of intellect- that ends in intellect is but a fleeting good. The great fountain of truth is in sensibility. " It is the heart, and not the brain, That to the highest doth attain ; And he who foUoweth love's behest, Far excelleth all the rest." Longfellow says also : " Feeling is deep and still ; and the world that Floats on the surface Is as the tossing buoy that betrays where the Anchor is hidden, Therefore trust to thy heart, and to what the World calls illusions." Too much of our education, so-called, touches only the surface. A book is mere paper unless it enters character. Science, art, philosophy, poetry, relig- ion, are mere childish amusements unless they enlarge and ennoble the soul. It is by a careful study of the growth and phenomena of the soul as revealed by consciousness, and by wise and deter- mined force of will, that we become mas- ters of ourselves and of the powers we possess. Our public school system is a noble institution. But does it not fail in this matter of developing consciousness and the power of will ? Does not the rapidity with which pupils are taken from one branch of study to another tend to destroy depth of con- sciousness and cultivate the habit of shal- lowness and of sham ? Do not the " aids " and artificial " meth- ods of teaching" leave but little for the child to do for himself, and thus deprive him of the opportunity and means of developing will power and of forming desirable traits of character ? Nature's method of culture is to address the whole being of man. She does not remove all difficulties. She throws us upon our own responsibilities. She appeals to the individual. She is no separatist. Where she offers poetry there she offers philosophy. On the records of the past she has written the prophecy of the future. She is no respecter of per- sons. Sunshine and shower fall alike upon rich and poor, upon just and unjust. The rudest peasant may drink deeper at her fountain than the most pretentious scholar. The Maid of Orleans puts to shame the most gallant Generals. The rugged rail- splitter becomes the leader of a great Nation. The news boy, Edison, self-taught and self-maintained, outstrips the college graduate. Nature loves completeness. She does not dote on specialties. Her aim is to build up a force of character that may manifest itself through any faculty, flow out in any channel, and reach any end that may be desired. True culture comes from following the laws of nature as revealed by observation, by reason, and by consciousness. " Some place the bliss in action, some in ease. Those call it pleasure, and contentment these ; Take Nature's path and mad opinion's leave. All states may reach it and all heads conceive, Observe her goods, in no extremes they dwell. It needs but thinking right and meaning well.'' —Pope. Culture should be the aim of every life. For as Sir William Hamilton truly says : "Unless above himself He can erect himself. How low a thing is man ! " But when brought up to the highest and best to which he is capable of becom- ing, we may, with Shakespeare, say : OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. " What a piece of work is man ! How noble in reason ! How infinite in faculties ! In form and moving, how express And admirable ! In action, how like an angel ! In apprehension, how like a God ! " Through culture comes the only true good, the only lasting happiness. Our study then should be to get at the heart of things and not be content with out- ward forms. For us, nothing is really true until it has passed through intellect and penetrated the soul. Nothing from without becomes a power within till it blends itself with the moral majesty of our being. There is a pleasure that comes to the tiller of the soil as he looks over his fields of grain and grazing herds and realizes that it is by his own toil that they have been produced. There is a pleasure for the architect as he looks upon the finished structure of his own hands. There is a pleasure for the artist as he puts the finishing stroke on the piece of work before him, well knowing that it is good. There is a pleasure for the scientist as he unfolds some hidden truth in the realms of the material world. There is a pleasure for the author who has completed his masterpiece and finds that it meets with the approval of the world. There is yet a greater pleasure for the person who has built up for himself a noble character and wisely and prudently improved every talent that was within his power. For the great work of culture the whole universe is accessible to every mind. Earth, air, water, the sky above us, the grass beneath our feet, all are symbols of higher and better things. The history of the past, the activity of the present, the infinite faculties of the mind, the finer sensibilities of the soul, the hopes we have for the future — all prompt us to a life of culture and of noble action. But as Longfellow truly says : "The longing for ignoble things ; The strife for triumph more than truth ; The hardening of the heart that brings Irreverence for the dreams of youth ; All these must first be trodden down Beneath our feet, if we would gain. In the bright fields of fair renown, The right of eminent domain." The Ohio University Commencement this year has created more than ordinary interest. Alumni and visitors began to reach Athens on Saturday, June 22d. On Sabbath morning Commencement exer- cises began with President Super's bacca- laureate address. The exercises were held in the City Hall, all the churches adjourn- ing to listen to the address. Dr. Super, in a profoundly philosophical discourse, discussed some of the leading problems of the day with an idea of their solution. It was an able handling of educational questions. Sabbath evening, Dr Henry A. Buttz, president of Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, N. J., preached the annual sermon in the Methodist Church. Dr. Buttz is too well known in Church cir- cles to need further introduction. He chose for his theme, " A True Life is the Test of True Learning." It was a beau- tiful and sympathetic appeal, establishing a Scriptural basis for the highest charac- ter and the noblest achievement. Every one felt that his presence was inspiring and beneficial. On Monday evening was held the an- nual contest of the Athenian, Philomathe- an, and Adelphian Societies. The judges were Professor F. VV. Shepardson, Chica- go, 111.; Junius E. Beal, Ann Arbor, Mich.;- Hon. W. F. Trickett, Carlisle, Pa., on thought and composition ; and Rev. W. E. dArgent, Gallipolis, O.; Hon. S. H. Hurst, Chillicothe, Ohio; Waltman Barbe,. Parkersburg, W. Va., on delivery. Asso- ciate Professor Catherine A. Findley acted as chairman for the occasion. The winning contestants were Charles M. Copeland, Athenian essayist ; W. K. Greenbank, Athenian debater ; and Sam- uel Half, Philomathean orator. In points, the victory was declared in favor of the Athenians. It was one of the most in- teresting contests that has ever been held. On Tuesday evening the eighth annual pedagogical Commencement was celebra- ted. Fannie C. Bean, Margaret A. Dick and J. Chase Dovvd received short peda- gogical certificates, while Chas. W. Cook- son and U. M. McCaughey were granted the degree of B. Ped. After the exercises the alumni banqueted at College Hall, where Miss Margaret Boyd, the first woman graduate, presided. The banquet 10 OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. closed with the usual amount of toasting. The next morning, at the business-meet- ing, the Alumni Association elected the following officers : President, Miss Lilli- an E. Michael ; vice-president, Herbert R. McVay ; secretary, B. O. Higley ; treas- urer, H. E. Dickason. L. M. Jewett, Eli Dunkle, D. J. Evans, E. J. Jones and T. R. Biddle constitute the Executive Com- mittee. More enthusiasm than ever was manifested. On Wednesday the trustees held their annual meeting. Plans for a new Ladies' Hall were accepted. This provides for a large, three-story, brick building, elegant- ly equipped, to be used as a dormitory and boarding-place for the ladies. When completed, in September, it will be one of the finest buildings in the town. Professor H. M. Conaway was given leave of absence for a year to attend Columbia University, where he holds a scholarship in History. Mr. Clyde Brown, member of the senior class, was employed as a member of the faculty for the following year. Honorary degrees were conferred as follows : A. M. on L. D. Bonebrake, of Mt. Vernon, and on A. M. Post, a judge of Supreme Court of Nebraska ; L. H. D. on Superintendent E. S. Cox, of Sidney ; D. D. on F. S. Da- vis, of Zanesville ; A. B. Carver, of Yonk- ers. Nearly every member of the Board was present and remained for the gradua- ting exercises the next day. Wednesday evening a powerful address on "Socrates and the Moderns" was delivered in the City Hall by Bishop Samuel Fallows, of Chicago. On Thursday morning the col- lege Commencement was held in the City Hall. The degree of B. A. was conferred upon five members of the class ; B. Ph. on four ; B. Ped. on three ; B. S. on four. Two former students and a post-graduate from the University of Missouri received the degree of M. S. The speeches of the graduates were of an exceptionally high order in thought, composition, and deliv- ery. It was one of the best classes that has left the University. Commencement week would not be full were not some- thing said about the fraternity reunions and banquets. First, Hon. C. H. Gros- venor opened his elegant home to the Phi Delta Pi's, the ladies' fraternity. On Friday evening, June 21st, the Delta Tau Delta Fraternity banqueted at Hotel Berry. Major C. H. Townsend, recently elected G. A. R. Commander for the Ohio Encampment, acted as toastmaster. The members and their guests spent a most delightful evening. On Monday evening the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity held their banquet at Hotel Berry. There was a large and enthusiastic attendance. Music was furnished by the Phi Sextette, with Newman Bennett as soloist. At the ban- quet table Mr. Wm. E. Bundy, of Cincin- nati, presided as toastmaster. Among the guests were the Hon. James M. Tripp, of Jackson ; Dr. J. E. Brown, of Columbus ; Hon. Charles H. Grosvenor, of Athens ; Hon. Lucien J. Fenton, of Winchester ; Hon. V. C. Lowry, of Logan ; Rev. S. F. McKim, of State Center, Iowa, and Pro- fessor Wm. M. Stine, of Armour Institute, Chicago. On Wednesday evening, Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Brown opened their elegant home to the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity, Mr. Brown being a member. After the address in the City Hall, about thirty couples repaired to the place of the banquet. Soon the large and enthusiastic company were served with an elegant niemt, prepared by caterer Berry. The usual after-dinner speeches were delivered. Professor Willis Bough- ton acted as toastmaster. Professor H. M. Conaway responded to the toast of " Beta Kappa." Mr. D. H. Thomas fol- lowed with a brief speech on " The Beta Student." The Hon. G. W. Boyce not being able to be present, his toast, "The Beta Brother," was responded to by L. M. Jewett. Mr. L. G. Worstell followed with "The Beta as a Citizen." Then all were charmed with the stirring words of Dr. D. H. Moore, in response to the sentiment, " Our Strong Band Shall Never be Broken." The evening was most delight- fully spent. Mr. Boyce and Dr. Earl Cranston, both of Cincinnati, and members of this frater- nity, were present at other exercises of Commencement. The whole week will be remembered as one of the most pleasant Commencements in the history of the Ohio University. The music of the entire week was charm- ing, and was furnished by the department. Next year Miss Sara Stinson, who has spent the past year in Paris, will resume her work as instructor in Art ; and a new member will be added to the faculty, probably a graduate of Yale. OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 11 The General Programme of the Com- mencement Exercises is as follows : SUNDAY, JUNE 23. 10:30 a. m, — Baccalaureate Address — President Super. 7:00 P. M.— Annual Sermon— Henry A. Buttz, D. D., LL. D., President of Drew Theological Seminary, Madi- son, N. J. MONDAY, JUNE 24. 7:30 p. M. — Annual Contest of the Literary Societies — Adel- phia, Athenian and Philomathean. TUESDAY, JUNE 2S. 7:30 p. M. — Alumni Exercises and Concert, followed by Banquet. ( WEDNESDAY, JUNE 26. 10:00 A. M. — Commencement Exercises of the Pedagogical Department. 2:00 p. M. — Meeting of Board of Trustees. 8.00 p. M. — Annual Address by the Rt. Rev. Samuel Fal- lows, D. D., LL. D., of Chicago. THURSDAY, JUNE 27. 9:30 a. m. — Commencement Exercises of the Collegiate De- partment. All these exercises are public except the session of the Board of Trustees. Below are the Programmes for Com- mencement Days. Eighth Annual Commencement OF the Pedagogical Department. JUNE 24, 7:30 p. m. a. Andante ; b. Allegro ; Symphony No. 3, Haydn. — The Misses Grace Gist, Florence Craig, Grace Reah and Bertha PIoover. An Outlook — Fannie C. Bean, Crises — Margaret A. Dick. A Geometrical Simile — ^J. Chase Dowd. Seng Without Words, No, 19, Mendelssohn — Miss Grace Gist. The following speakers are transferred from Thursday's programme : The Search for Truth — Pascal A. Bright, Garibaldi — William P. Collier. Summer Night, Thomas — Miss Madge Buck. Is Our Education Sufficiently Progressive? — Charles W. Cookson. The Poet's Mission — Frank C. Schofield. Boat Song, Bendel — Miss Grace Reah. The Aryan — R.\LPH C Super. Presentation of Diplomas. Annie Laurie (Ladies' Quartette) — The Misses Grace Gist, Florence Craig, Madge Buck and Dollie Gist. College Commencement. THURSDAY, JUNE 27, 9:00 a. m. Invocation. Chorus — Spring Song— Pinsiiti. Education Essential to Moral Progress — U. M. Mc- Caughey. Oliver Cromwell — I. M. Foster. a. Wiegenlied, Henseli ; b. Novelette, Godard—M.iss Lulu Browne. The Ethical Lessons of History — Cly'DE Brown. Triumphs of Science — T. A. Martin. Slumber Song, Schumann — Miss Florence Craig. Isis Unveiled — Amy Wiehr. The Government and the Individual — Thos. S. Hogan. The Last Idea of Von Weber, Cramer — Miss Anna Jones. Faraday — F. H. Super. The Arbiter of Truth— T. L. Young. Chorus — Send Out Thy Light — Gounod. Presentation of Diplomas, by Bishop Fallows. Some objection has from time to time been made by the Graduates of the Uni- versity to the short pedagogical course, on the ground that now and then those who have merely received certificates represent them as diplomas. While this is to be re- gretted, it can not properly be urged that the abuse of a thing should abolish its legitimate use. Considering the condi- tion of what is called " normal education" in our State, and indeed in other States, there is a legitimate place for a short course — legitimate in so far as it does not profess to be what it manifestly is not. A three years' course is not as good as one covering twice that length of time, and common honesty ought not to be slow to recognize the difference. But there is fraud in the effort to make one appear just as valuable as the other. An experi-. ence of some ten years with our shorter course has led us to believe that it is serv- ing a useful purpose. It has a certain completeness not provided in the courses that are intended to be continuative. Those, therefore, who for any reason can not go on, will find it to their advantage to round out their studies, in a measure at least, by completing our short course. And it will hardly be contended that all those whose ambition does not look be- yond the public school, except to the nar- rower needs of practical life, ought to be expected to spend four years in college, while we are not ready to make any state- ments as to the future, the present de- mand seems to make our duty plain to this extent at least, that if any modifica- tion of this course is called for, it should be in the direction of a more thorough mastery of the subjects it embraces. We shall be glad to discontinue it as soon as the nature of our educational conditions makes it advisable. We shall at least not degrade our degree of Bachelor of Pedagogy by giving it for less work than other degrees. 12 OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. For a number of years no more serious lack has been felt by the management of the University than that of a dormitory for ladies. It has sometimes been diffi- cult for both students and teachers to find suitable boarding places within a conven- ient distance of the college buildings. Fortunately this lack will no longer exist. The College Place Improvement Co. has offered to the Trustees to put up a well planned building, just outside of the col- lege campus that will accommodate from thirty to forty boarders, and the offer has been accepted. The building is in pro- gress of erection and will be pushed forward to completion as rapidly as possi- ble. It may not be quite ready for occu- pancy by the opening of the Fall Term, but the delay will not exceed a few weeks. By this arrangement it will be possible to provide furnished rooms with heat and light, together with board, for a sum ranging from 8150.00 to S200.00 per year. The hall will be built of pressed brick, three stories high, with two fronts, and conveniently arranged in every way. A competent steward will be put in charge, and the occupants may expect to be well cared for. At the recent commencement the Trus- tees of the University conferred the de- gree of Bachelor of Arts upon five young men, P. A. Bright, of Logan ; R. C. Super, son of President Sisper ; F. C. Schofield, of Fayetteville, Mo.; W. P. Collier, of Wheeling, West Va., and C. W. Cookson, of Shawnee ; the degree of Bachelor of Pedagogy on three young men, U. M. Mc- Caughey, of Triadelphia; Sebastian Thom- as, of Ashland, and Charles W. Cookson ; that of Bachelor of Science on four young men, Francis H. Super, son of President Super ; Thos. L. Young, of Daleton ; S. T. Muraj'ama, of Tokio, Japan, and T. A. Martin of Springfield ; that of Bachelor of Philosophy on three young men and one young lady, Clyde Brown, of McConnels- viUe ; T. S. Hogan, of Wellston ; I. M. Foster and Amy Wiehr, of Athens. The degree of Master of Science was con- ferred upon C. S. Coler, Principal of San- dusky High School ; Wilbur Colvin, of Harriman, Tenn.; William L. Skaggs, of Festus, Mo., and H. R. Holcomb, of Col- lege Springs, la. Mr. John A. Shott was made Master of Philosophy. Professors Holcomb and Shott, the latter Professor- elect in Carthage College, 111., were mem- bers of the class of '92. Dr. A. B Grif- fiths was made a Doctor of Science. Dr. Griffiths has a remarkable record as a Sci- entist. He is a member of many learned societies in the different European coun- tries. He has made several important discoveries in bacteriology and is regarded as the highest authority in the world on ptomaines. Among his numerous works are, "A Treatise on Manures," "The Di- seases of Crops," " Manures and Their Uses," " Researches on Physiology of the Invertebrata," " Our Certain Eocene Formations of Western Servia," etc. The degree of Doctor of Letters was conferred upon Elmer S. Cox, of Sidney, Ohio ; L. D. Bonebrake, Supt. of the Mt. Vernon Schools and a member of the State Board of Examiners, and A. M. Post, of the Supreme Court of Nebraska, were made honorary Masters of Arts. The Rev. A. B. Carver, of Yonkers, New York, and the Rev. F. S. Davis, of Zanesville, were made honorary Doctors of Divinity. The degree of Doctor of Philosophy was not conferred upon any one in course but Pro- fessor J. P. Patterson, of Colorado received \X. pro Iionore . One lady received the de- gree of Master of Philosophy on thesis, Miss Helena T. Goessman, daughter of Professor Goessman, of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst. Three students received certificates showing that they had completed the shorter pedagog- ical course, and two that they had com- pleted the commercial course. One of the subjects discussed at the Ohio College Association in Sandusky was the amount of Greek that should be required for admission to the Freshman Class. The matter had been discussed at previous meetings and was again referred to a committee consisting of President Super and Prof. Phillips, of Marietta. This committee reported that the amount of Greek should consist of four books of the Anabasis, three books of Homer and some practice in the writing of simple Attic Prose. It was found that some of the colleges, among them the Ohio Uni- versity, already require this, but a consid- erable number require less. 'The commit- tee further recommended that these re- quirements for the classical course be made the condition for membership in the As- sociation. It was not deemed necessary OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 13 to prescribe the time students should spend on this work, but it was suggested that for pupils who come up regularly through the High School, three years ought to be allowed. The report of the Committee was laid on the table without much discussion. It is well known that the so-called "Com- mittee of Twelve" were appointed to give effect to a resolution of the American Phi- lological Association, which reads as fol- lows : ^^ Resolved, That, in the opinion of the American Philological Association, in any programme designed to prepare students for the classical course, not less than three years of instruction in Greek should be re- quired." This resolution is in accordance with the practice of most Eastern Colleges and many of those farther west. It is intended to apply to the classical course only, and is clearly in the interest of sound learning. We cannot help but regard the rejection of the recommendation by the Ohio Asso- ciation as a step in the wrong direction, or rather a failure to take a step in the right direction. Nevertheless, in view of the non-representative character of the asso- ciation and of the difficulty in enforcing any approximately strict conditions of membership the effect will probably be very slight. The colleges that have al- ready adopted the standard recommended will make no change, and those that have not hitherto done so would probably make none in any case. We are not among those who believe that the value of the higher education de- pends wholly or chiefly upon the amount of Greek it contains. There have been many thoroughly educated men and women who did not know Greek. At the same time we maintain that Greek con- tains a larger number of elements that en- ter into a liberal education than any other single subject. It is not necessary, it is true, to study the language to get out of the general subject its educational value. But the danger is that those who do not make the acquaintance of the subject through the medium of the language will not make it out at all. The student who merely learns the Grammar, if he learns it well, will be amply repaid for his labor. He will have required a knowledge of the noblest medium for the expression of thought ever invented by man. But Greek civilization has its lessons — may teach us moderns not only what to do, but also what to leave undone. It demon- strates how mere intellectual superiority can not save a nation. The great danger that is pretty certain to grow out of a dis- carding of Greek is that which threatens liberal education in general. It represents preeminently the culture-side of educa- tion, and shows the connection of the present with the remote past. It is the chief antidote against the purely and nar- rowly practical in education. We are the champions of Greek, not so much for the language itself as for the class of studies it represents in a wider sense. The more thoroughl}^ Greek is mastered the greater will be its value, and the larger the satis- faction it brings to the student. A TOLERABLY regular annual attend- ance at the very irregularly attended meetings of the Ohio College Association has made it pretty clear that however use- ful the Association may be, abstractly considered, its practical advantages are very small. The perso7inel of the different sessions at the same meeting is frequently so different as to make them virtually different bodies. The number present from each institution is usually so limited as to preclude the idea that it is in any sense a representative body. Unpremed- itated questions now and then come up for discussion and decision, yet nothing is decided after a vote has been taken. It' might thus easily happen that a vote taken the forenoon would be reversed by that of the afternoon. So little concert of action is there among the colleges of Ohio, and so variable are their standards, that they have almost nothing in common but the name and location within the same State. If there is any merit in running the higher education on the go-as-you-please plan, we of the Buckeye State have a fine oppor- tunity to test it. Professor Boughton attended the meet- ings of the National Educational Associa- tion at Denver ; President Super and Pro- fessors Chapin, Gordy and Atkinson were present at the State Teachers' Association in Sandusky. Professor Atkinson was on the programme of the College Section, and Professor Gordy on that of the Gen- eral Association, to discuss the normal school question. President Super read a I paper before the Modern Language Sec- 14 OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. tion on the letter "C," in the Romance Tongues. He also attended the meeting of the American Philological Association, which met this year in Cleveland. We believe this Association has met but twice in its history west of the Alleghenies. The attendance this year from Ohio, out- side of Cleveland, was very small. The next meeting will be held in Providence, R. I., beginning on the seventh of July, '96. We are particularly impressed — if this expression may be used of what does not impress — with the defective enunciation of many of the readers who presented papers at the Philological Association. It would seem that teachers who are in the habit of lecturing to their students would feel it incumbent upon themselves to present their matter in such a form as to make it fairly interesting. It requires no great degree of elocutionary training to make a reasonably good reader. But if the Cleveland meeting is an index, the lecture system in American colleges leaves much to be desired. The address of the President was delivered in such a low tone of voice and so monotonously • that wc venture the assertion that not half the audience in a small room understood one- fourth of what was said. Yet the reputa- tion of the speaker is a sufficient guaran- tee that it contains much well worth hearing. Other papers, and a good deal of the discussion, was in the same lifeless manner. If this is the usual way of doing we do not wonder that the meetings are thinly attended. It is a good deal more satisfactory to read the transactions, at a time and place of one's own choosing, than to go a long distance to listen to some of the papers when presented by their au- thors. During the past year the religious in- terests of the University have been well cared for both by the faculty and the students. A majority of the latter seemed to be impressed with the conviction that they were in a large measure responsible for whatever influence Christianity might have upon the thought and life of their fellows ; they accordingly strove to live and act in the light' of this responsibility. Dr. Powell gave a series of weekly talks on " Prophecy," that extended through a large part of the year. Several clergymen stationed in the vicinity of Athens deliv- ered Sunday lectures in the college chapel on topics connected with the Chris- tian life. Among these were Rev. F. S. Davis, of Zanesville ; Rev. Chas. B. Tay- lor, of McArthur ; the Rev. A. J. Hawk, of Wellston, and the Rev. Wm. E. Roe, of Marietta. The faculty hope to be able to provide a still more extensive course dur- ing the next year. During the past year the University has furnished instruction in the commer- cial branches and in stenography and typewriting. This has been done for the legitimate reason that there is a justi- fiable demand for persons who are profi- cient in these branches. The knowledge and training they bring with them are in their sphere as valuable as any other. That they have been abused does not invalidate this statement. They have no educational value when regarded solely as an end in themselves. Unfortunately this is the point of view from which they are popularly regarded. The fact is lost sight of that an ignorant man cannot even write a letter correctly, easily as the achievement seems to most people. He may write something that will convey his meaning, but that is the best that can be said of it. Our work in these branches will, while having a practical end in view, also keep before the student their educational value. The two should never be separated. After due delibera- tion the Faculty have therefore resolved to allow a reasonable amount of credit in the college course for this work, when sat- isfactorily performed. It is believed that in this way a business education, or the business element in any education, will gain a dignity that it does not otherwise possess. A business education is not something that any unsophisticated youth can acquire in a few weeks, or at most, in a few months ; it demands both knowledge and training. Even a business man may be, and he certainly ought to be, liberally educated. Both he and his business will be the better for it. We hope to con- tribute something to the formation of a more enlightened public opinion on this subject. OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 15 In accordance with the conditions of the bequest the Emerson Prize Poem Fund is again available this year. A number of verses in competition were sub- mitted to the Faculty. These were sent to Mr. Maurice Thompson, of Crawfords- ville, Ind., and Mrs. Annie Fields, of Boston, for adjudication. As it happened the judges do not quite agree, one putting second the production the other places first, and vice versa. The two first will therefore have to be placed in the hands of a third judge for final decision. The fact that there is a substantial agreement in the verdict already rendered, affords a strong presumption that it is just. It is proper to say that neither knew the con- clusion reached by the other. Personal Notes* Mr. I. M. Foster ('95), will enter the Harvard Law School next Fall. Mr. Thos. McFarland ('94), will teach next year in the State of Tennessee. Professor Bowman spent the greater part of his vacation at his home in Lynch- burg, Va. We hope to have another number of the BulUtin ready by the first of next December. Professors Conaway and Higley spent part of their vacation attending lectures at the Chicago University. Professor Hoover had charge during the summer, as usual, of the classes in Mathematics at Chautauqua. Mr. Clyde Brown ('95), gave instruc- tion in the Institutes of Morgan, Athens, Vinton and Jefferson counties. Mr. U. M. McCaughey ('95), has been chosen to take charge of the Fultonham Academy for the ensuing year. Miss Findley attended the National Convention of Elocutionists, held in Bos- ton, during the last days of June. Mr. John A. Shott ('92), for three years Professor of Natural Science in the Lebanon Valley College, has been elected to a similar position in the Carthage Col- lege, 111. Mr. Fred Sillery, an undergraduate, will be out of college next year to take charge of the schools of Cheshire. Professor Gordy conducted Institutes in Crawford Co., Pa., and in Morgan, Athens, Coshocton and Perry counties in Ohio. Miss Sarah Stinson, who spent the last year in Paris, in study, will resume charge of the Art Department at the opening of the term. Mr. C. W. Cookson ('95), who was for some time a student at Wooster Universi- ty, and for several years Superintendent of the schools of Shawnee, has been elected to a similar position at New Straitsville. Mr. L. E. Armstrong ('94), who taught last year in Tennessee, has been elected to the Principalship of the High School of Rawlins, Wyoming, and is already on his new ground ready for business. Mr. Arm- strong expects to make teaching his life work, and has made very thorough prepa- ration for his chosen profession. Mr. F. C. Schofield ('95), has been preaching in several Baptist churches in the vicinity of Athens during the present year. He has had a varied career as a student. His home is in Missouri ; he has been in attendance at the Denver Univer- sity, at Rochester University and here, and has made his way through college en- tirely by preaching and teaching. Mr. F. W. Bush ('92), after teaching three years very successfully in McCon- nelsville, has decided to change his occu- pation. He has purchased an interest in the Athens Messefiger a?id Herald, and will henceforth assist in its management. As Mr. Bush is an entertaining writer and an energetic man, he will no doubt contribute materially to the success of the paper. Perhaps an attachment for Athens, formed during the former years of his sojourn, contributed to his return. Mr. G. W. Reed ('88), who, since his graduation, has been teaching in Colorado and Utah, will soon return to his native State. He has been elected Principal of the McConnelsville High School, and ex- pects to assume the duties of his position at the opening of the next school year. That he will justify the action of the Board to which he owes his election, and satisfy his constituents, we do not doubt. 16 OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. Rev. C. W. Rishell (Ph. D., '92), who has recently been elected Professor of Historical Theology in the Boston Uni- versity School of Theology, will prepare the volume on "Christian Evidences" for the Crooks-Hurst Series. Nearly one hundred students were in attendance in the various departments of the O. U. during the summer term. The instructors were Professors Evans and Dunkle, Miss Stinson, and Mr. Martin. In addition to these, Professor Atkinson and Mr. Young conducted classes in Physics and Chemistry. It is probable that here- after all the departments of the College will be carried on during several weeks of July and August. In the current number of Popular Sci- ence, Professor Chapin begins a series of articles on Modern Disinfectants. C. M. Shepard spent six weeks at Cold Spring Harbor, in the study of Biology. He returned to Athens about the middle of August. Miss Kate Cranz received the degree of A. M. from Heidelberg University at Tiffin. President Super delivered two ad- dresses before the Gallia County Teach- ers' Association. Professor Bemis, whose dismissal from the University of Chicago has at- tracted such wide-spread attention, gave a course of lectures before the O. U. sev- eral years ago. At the same time he in- vestigated a Hocking Valley strike which was then in progress and published a monograph upon it. Miss Mabel K. Brown, one of our instructors, is spending the summer months in France. She will return about the 10th of September. Miss King passed most of her vacation at her home in Tennessee. Dr. William Waddle, of Chillicothe, for a quarter of a century a trustee of the O. U., died on the 23d of August, at the age of eighty-four. He resigned his trusteeship a few years ago on account of increasing infirmities. He was, when in his prime, one of the leading men of this section of the State. OHIO UNIVERSITY, ATHBNS. This Institution provides courses lead- ing to the degree of Bachelor of Art. Bachelor of Pedagogy. Bachelor of Philosophy. Bachelor of Science. At the close of the Freshman year much of the work is elective. There is also a thorough course in Music. In addition to the courses lead- ing to a degree, instruction is given in Electrical Engineering, Prepara- tory Medical work, Stenography and Type-Writing, Commercial Branches, etc. The regular tuition is Thirt}' Dol- lars per year. There is a summer term every 3'ear during the month of July and part of August. Send for a Catalogue to the President. OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 17 Book Notices* "Elements of Plane Geometry," by John Macnie, in White's Series of Mathe- matics. The same firm has also sent us "White's Outline Studies in the History of the United States." These "Studies" are in- tended to supplement the standard school histories by directing attention to the dif- ferent phases entering into the civilization that was developed on the North Ameri- can continent. A long list of works is given, from which the answers to the va- rious questions are to be culled. .While the book is a small one, the pupil who makes his way through it will acquire a most competent knowledge of the history of his country, taking the term history in its broadest sense. Its use will be an effectual antidote against the mischievous custom of teaching and studying history from a single text-book. "School Interests and Duties," by R. M. King. The object of this book is a wholesome one, viz., namely to show the general public that it is unwise to throw the whole responsibility for the schools upon the teacher. While it is true to some extent that the school is as the teacher, it is true in a wider sense that the school is as the community. There are many places in this country where the best teacher would be entirely out of his place because of an unsympathetic environment. How often has experience shown this to be the case? It is the time- server who succeeds and the honest man who fails. The man who gets along smoothly is generally the one who is care- ful not to arouse the people out of their familiar habits of thought and who is always ready to make his patrons believe they are wiser than other people. There are communities in which it is next to im- possible to make the schools good except by a process so slow that the official life of a teacher is far too short to compass it. There are communities so far behind the times that pedagogical work of a high order among them is utterly out of the question. The misfortune is that the people who ought to read this book will not do so. "The Vicar of Wakefield, with an Intro- duction." We are glad to see this immor- tal story, equally the delight of old and young, issued in a cheap and yet substan- tial form. A SERIES of Monographs, prepared un- der the auspices of the National Geo- graphic Society. The following have been issued : " General Physiographic Processes." " General Physiographic Features." " Physiographic Regions of the United States." " Beaches and Tidal Marshes of the At- lantic Coast." " Present and Extinct Lakes of Ne- vada." "The Northern Appalachians." " Psychology in Education," by R. N. Roark. Another Psychology ! How great is the number in our day of those who flatter themselves that they can add something to this intricate subject or ar- range its well known data in a more in- teresting way. A somewhat hasty exam- ination of the book before us hasimpressed us rather favorably. While it contains a good many things that one would not ex- pect to find in a text-book on psychology, they are not for that reason necessarily out of place. There are many teachers who could read it with profit. But the persons who are competent to write a Psychology from the standpoint of the Science, as it is to-day, can be counted on the fingers of one hand. The American Book Company have just issued a new "Webster's Academic Dictionary," abridged from the "Interna- tional Webster." It is preeminently what it professes to be, " a comprehensive dic- tionary at a small cost." The type, though small, is very clear. There are two col- umns to the page, and an abundance of illustrations. The several appendices con- tain a pronouncing vocabulary of Biblical, Classical, Mythological, Historical and Geographical proper names ; quotations, words, phrases, etc., from various lan- guages; abbreviations used in writing and printing ; a concise account of the chief deities, heroes, etc., in the Greek and Ro- man Mythologies, etc. Like all the books issued by this house it is substantially bound. 18 OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. H. A. GuERBER has added to his " Myths of Greece and Rome" a volume of "Myths of Northern Lands." The author relates in his interesting way the Germanic legends concerning the Begin- ning of all Things, Oden, Thor, the Valkyrs, the Elves, etc. We do not know any other book in English covering the same ground that is so attractively written as this. It is fully illustrated, and is supplied with a glossary and index. THE HUDSON SCHOOL . . FURNITURE GO. MANUPACTUEERS OF 'The Hudson Automatic School Desk" and Hall, Church and Office rurniture. . . School Supplies of all kinds . . .ATHENS, O. Invaluable Aids to Teachers and Students of Geography National GEOGRAPHIC MDNOGRAPHS on the Physical Features of the Earth's Surface. Published monthly e.\cept in July and August. Now Ready Monograph No. i, on PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES BY JOHN W. POWELL, Late Director U. S. Geological Survey. Annual Subscription — ten Mono- graphs—payable in advance, $1.5° Annual Subscription — five copies to one address - payable in ad- vance, ...... 5.00 Single Monographs, 20 . • . THE . • . Baker & Taylor Co. 5 and 7 E. I6tli Street, NEW YORK. Carry a full line of Miscellaneous Books, And a complete Stock of School and College Text-Books. Remit "with order to American Book Company New York • Cincinnati • Chicago PUREST LESS THAN HALFTHE- PRICt OF OTHtR BRANDS H-POUNDS,20+ 'V HALVtS.I0+QUARTERS,54 SOLD !N CANS ONLY OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 19 AUGUST ISSUES. Stories for Children. (Eclectic School Readings.) First Reader Grade. By MRS. Chas. A. LANE. 12mo, cloth, 104 pages; profuse illustrations 25 cents. Fairy Stories and Fables. (Eclectic School Readings.) Second Reader Grade. Retold by James Baldwin. 12mo, cloth, 176 pages ; profuse illustrations 35 cents. Old Greek Stories. (Eclectic School Readings.) Third Reader Grade. By JAMES BALDWIN. 12mo, cloth, 208 pages; numerous illustrations 45 cents. Patriotic Citizenship. By THOMAS J. MORGAN, LL. D., ex-United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs ; Member of the National Council of Education, etc. 12mo, cloth, with the American flag in colors, 368 pages ;$1.00 Elementary Lessons in Zoology. A guide in studying animal life and structure in field and laboratory. By James G. Needham, M. S., Instructor in Zoology, Knox College, Galesburg, 111. 12mo, cloth, 302 pages and numerous illustrations ■ First Year in French. By L. C. Syms. Especially designed for the use of children, and for schools desiring an introduction to French literature in the hands of pupils in the grammar grades, in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee of Ten. 12mo, cloth, 128 pages 50 cents. The Academic French Course. In accordance with the latest grammatical rules adopted by the French Academy. Second year. By ANTOINE MUZZARELLI. 12mo, cloth, 342 pages $1.00 Germania Texts No. 2. Gervinus on Goethe und Schiller ; Lessing und Herder. Paper, thin, 16mo, 22 pages 10 cents. Bilder aus der Deutchen Litteratur. By J. Keller, Professor of German Language and Literature in the Normal College of New York. 12mo, cloth, 225 pages 75 cents. Single copies of any of the above books will be sent by mail, postpaid, 0)1 receipt of the price. Special terms for introduction. Correspondence is cordially invited and will have prompt attention. American Book Company, Chkago.'**' 3'7 Walnut Street, Cincinnati, O. 20 OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. ^i*. .*i«. A!«. ">!*■ -SJ? •>!«• prcmo (£amcras Produce Perfect Pictures. j^ie, ^t*. ^T^ ^i? ^i? W When you buy a Camera, you want one that is perfect in construction, simple to operate, compact, light in weight and reasonable in price. ASK ANY OWNER OK ^ PREMO What he thinks of it. He will tell you it is the finest Camera he ever saw or used. If you want a Camera with all adjust- ments for hand and tripod use — a Camera strictly up to date — Get a PREMO! Send for complete catalogue.. [Rochester Optical Q^o., Rochester, N. Y.